CUMULATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY

Constant References:

 

 

PAGE  ‘About

Sources

 

 

 

Post 1.Cipher versus language – assertions and bundles’ (November 20, 2018)

Sources

 

 

Post 2. ‘Provenance: Wilfrid-style and real-world’. ( November 24th., 2018)

Sources

 

 

Post 3. Wheat from the Chaff – ‘Bacon ciphertext’ (December 15, 2018)

Sources
  •  Roger Bacon and ciphers. Addendum to…’
  • John Dooley, History of Cryptography and Cryptanalysis: Codes, Ciphers, and Their Algorithms. (2018)
  • Amanda Power,  Roger Bacon and the Defence of Christendom, ( 2013) pp.221-2.
  • Professor Romaine Newbold, ‘The Roger Bacon Manuscript’Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, Series 3: Vol.43, (1921)  pp. 431- 474. Section occurs pp.456ff.
  • Bernhard Bischoff, « Ûbersicht ûber die nichtdiplomatischen Geheimschriften des Mittelalters», Mitteilungen des instituts fur Osterreichische Geschichtsforschung62 (1954) 1-27.
  • Katherine Ellison and Susan Kim, ‘Introduction: Ciphers and the Material History of Literacy’, in Ellison and Kim (eds.), A Material History of Medieval and Early Modern Ciphers: Cryptography and the History of Literacy.  (New York: Routledge, 2018).
  • David A.King, The Cipher of the Monks. (2001) The table of contents is (here).
  • King’s work was introduced to public Voynich discussions online by Nick Pelling in 2010, while discussing a 14thC astrolabe from Picardy. (here).
  • John Block Friedman, “The Cipher Alphabet of John de Foxton’s Liber Cosmographiae,” Scriptorium 36 (1982), 219-35. accessible as a pdf through Persee.
  • de Foxton’s cipher was introduced to  Voynich studies by  Nick Pelling, in a comment to the first (Jim Reeds’) mailing list (in 2002).
  • Paulinus Bellet, ‘Anthologia Palatina 9.538, ‘The Alphabet and the Calligraphic Examination in the Coptic Scriptorium’,  The Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists, Vol. 19, No. 1/2 (1982), pp.1-7.
  • cf. Liv Ingeborg Lied, Hugo Lundhaug, Snapshots of Evolving Traditions: Jewish and Christian Manuscript Culture, Textual Fluidity, and New Philology (2017) p.157 & note.
  • Letter of Georgius Barschius to Athanasius Kircher (1639). Transcription, translation and notes by Philip Neal.
  • George W. Corner, ‘A Thirteenth-Century Medical Cryptogram’, Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine 4 (1936) 745-750.
  • Wilfrid Voynich, ‘A Preliminary Sketch of the History of the Roger Bacon Cipher Manuscript’, Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, Series 3: Vol.43, (1921)  p.416.
  • [pdf] Walsh, James Joseph, The Popes and Science; the History of the Papal Relations to Science During the Middle Ages and Down to Our Own Time, Fordam University Press, New York 1908. quoted passage from p.19.
  • Andrew Dickson White, A history of the warfare of science with theology in Christendom (1896)
  • Feb 4th., Cons, Louis, ‘Un manuscrit mystérieux: Un traité scientifique du treizième siècle, attribué a Roger Bacon’, L’Illustration 159 (Number 4118, 4 Feb 1922) p. 112. [Copy in BL Facs 439. J.R.]
  • May 20th., Garland, Herbert. ‘A Literary Puzzle Solved?’ Illustrated London News160, (20 May1922), pp.740-742.
  •  Dr. R. Loeser. “Roger Bacons Chiffremanuskript.” Die Umschau. 26 (1922), pp.115-117.
  • D.N. O’Donovan, ”An early 15th C copy of a 13th C text: Thomas of Cantimpré’, voynichimagery (blog), May 9th., 2016.
  • E. Westacott, Roger Bacon (1945)
  • ‘Aristotle’s Natural Philosophy’, Standford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy.
  • Karen Kenyon, ‘Roger Bacon

Header picture: detail from folio 164r,  Brit.Lib. Royal MS 7 F VIII. (Philosophical works and fragments, chiefly by Roger Bacon)

Illustration: (detail)  Roger Bacon, Wellcome Image V0000284

PAGE: Addendum to Roger Bacon and ciphers. ….

Sources
  • Patrick Gautier Dalché, La Cosmographia d’Aethicus Ister À propos d’une édition récente*[pdf] omits publication details.  Reviews M. W. Herren, The Cosmography of Aethicus Ister. Edition, translation, and commentary, Turnhout, 2011 (review is possibly from The Journal of mediaeval Latin, 8).  An English abstract to Dalché’s review says it “scrutinizes the editor’s hypothesis concerning the dating of the work and its nature, reviews the details of editor’s and translator’s choices and offers the identification of further sources”.
  • Danuta Shanzer, ‘The Cosmographia Attributed to Aethicus Ister as Philosophen- or Reiseroman’ (through Academia.edu)
  • Extract from [Roger Bacon] “Letter concerning the marvelous power of art and of nature and concerning the nullity of magic”. transcription of the section on ciphers,  with comments by John Dooley [and D.}  Text taken from:
  • Friar BACON His Discovery of the Miracles [of] Art, [of] Nature. and [of] Magick. Faithfully translated out of Dr DEE’s own Copy, by T.M. and never before in English” (1659).
  • John Dooley, History of Cryptography and Cryptanalysis: Codes, Ciphers, and Their Algorithms. (2018)
  • Tenney L. Davis (trans.), Roger Bacon’s letter concerning the marvelous power of art and of nature and concerning the nullity of magic …. together with notes and an account of Bacon’s life and work. (1923). Entry at Stanford University,   (here).
  • Garland, Herbert.(biog.)
  • Lynn Thorndike, ‘The True Roger Bacon’ published in two parts in  The American Historical Review. Part 1 in Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan., 1916), pp. 237-257; Part 2 in Vol. 21, No. 3 (Apr., 1916), pp. 468-480.
  • Lynn Thorndike, ‘Bacon and Gunpowder’, Science, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 1092 (Dec. 3, 1915), pp. 799-800. (p.799)
  • Jeremiah Hackett, (ed.)d’Roger Bacon and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays 1996 (Brill)
  • [pdf] Walsh, James Joseph, The Popes and Science; the History of the Papal Relations to Science During the Middle Ages and Down to Our Own Time, Fordam University Press, New York 1908.
  • Andrew Dickson White, A history of the warfare of science with theology in Christendom (1896).
  • Bernhard Bischoff, « Ûbersicht ûber die nichtdiplomatischen Geheimschriften des Mittelalters», Mitteilungen des instituts fur Osterreichische Geschichtsforschung 62 (1954) 1-27.
  • Katherine Ellison and Susan Kim, ‘Introduction: Ciphers and the Material History of Literacy’, in A Material History of Medieval and Early Modern Ciphers: Cryptography and the History of Literacy, ed. by Katherine Ellison and Susan Kim (New York: Routledge, 2018).
  • David A.King, The Cipher of the Monks. (2001)
  • John Block Friedman, “The Cipher Alphabet of John de Foxton’s Liber Cosmographiae,Scriptorium 36 (1982), 219-35. accessible through Persee.

Amanda Power,  Roger Bacon and the Defence of Christendom, ( 2013) pp.221-2.

  • Edmond Nolan, S. A. Hirsch, The Greek Grammar of Roger Bacon, and a Fragment of His Hebrew grammar.(1902)
  • [pdf] Baruch Sterman, ‘Jewish Cryptography’, paper (undated).
  • Hirsch, Early English Hebraists, in Book of Essays.

Illustration: Alphabet of Aethicus-Ethicus.  (Shows Table 1 of 5 from Leo Weiner, Contributions toward a history of Arabico-Gothic culture (1917). Note that Weiner’s own text should be treated with reserve.

Illustration: (detail) Aethicus-Ethicus Ister’s alphabet at end of his Cosmographiae (f.90r) in  Brit.Lib. Cotton MS Appendix LVI, ff 61–90

Illustration: 10thC cipher from Brit.Lib. Add.MS 21917 (f. 71v).

 

 

Post 4.  .. – Books of Secrets and the ‘Secretum secretorum’ (December 19th., 2018)

Sources
  • William Eamon, ‘Books of Secrets in Medieval and Early Modern Science’, Sudhoffs Archiv, Bd. 69, H. 1 (1985), pp. 26-49.
  • Nick Pelling, ‘Research Breakthrough ciphermysteries (blog), 8th. May, 2008.
  • Steven J. Williams, ‘Roger Bacon and His Edition of the Pseudo-Aristotelian Secretum secretorum’, Speculum, Vol. 69, No. 1 (Jan., 1994), pp. 57-73.  passage  quoted from pp. 64-65.
  •  ‘Greek Sources in Arabic and Islamic Philosophy‘, in  Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (entry revised 2017)  contrast with
  • Roger Bacon, Robert Steele, Opera hactenus inedita Rogeri Baconi V: Secretum Secretorum (1909) Latin text; Steele’s notes in Eng.
  • Roger Bacon, Opera hactenus inedita Rogeri Baconi, 5: Secretum secretorum cum glossis et notulis, ed. Robert Steele (Oxford, 1920)
  • Robert Steele, Three prose versions of the Secreta secretorum (Early English Texts Soc.) 1898
  • M.A. Manzalaoui (ed.). Secretum secretorum : nine English versions (Early English Texts Soc.) 1977.
  • E.A. Wallis Budge,Syrian anatomy, pathology, and therapeutics; or, “The Book of Medicines”Vol.1 Introduction and text;  Vol.2 English translation.
  • Steven J. Williams, The Secret of Secrets: The Scholarly Career of a Pseudo-Aristotelian Text in the Latin Middle Ages. (2003).
  • Yela Schauwecker, Die Diätetik nach dem ‘ Secretum secretorum * in der Version von Jofroi de Waterford Teiledition und lexikalische Untersuchung, Würzburger medizinhistorische Forschungen 92   (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2007).  and …
  • review (of Schauwecker) by Alex Stuart in  Medium Aevum, Vol. 79, No. 1 (2010) EDITIONS OF TEXTS, pp. 160-169.
  • L. Saif,  ‘Textual and Intellectual Reception of Arabic Astral Theories in the Twelfth Century’, in  The Arabic Influences on Early Modern Occult Philosophy. (2015)
  • Lynn Thorndike, ‘The Latin Pseudo-Aristotle and Medieval Occult Science‘,  The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, Volume 21 No.4 (April 1922) pp.229-258.
  • M. Gaster, ‘The Hebrew Version of the “Secretum Secretorum,” a Mediæval Treatise Ascribed to Aristotle’.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (Oct., 1908), pp. 1065-1084 .
  • [pdf] Antònia Carré and Lluís Cifuentes, ‘Girolamo Manfredi’s Il Perché: II. The Secretum secretorum and the book’s publishing success’Medicina & Storia, X, 2010, 19-20, n.s., pp. 39-58.
  • Linda T. Darling, ‘Mirrors for Princes in Europe and the Middle East: A Case of Historiographical Incommensurability’ (no publication details given; paper available through academia.edu).

Header picture:     (detail)  Brit.Lib. MS Harley 3719  f.31v  (1275-1540), excerpt from the Secretum Secretorum.

Illustrations: two details from folio 51r, Brit.Lib. Yates Thompson MS 28

 

 

Post 5. ……….. Hime’s ‘gunpowder cipher’ (December 23rd., 2018)

Sources
  • H. W. L. Hime (Col.), “Roger Bacon and Gunpowder,” in Roger Bacon: Commemoration Essays, ed. by A. G. Little (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1914) pp.321-335.
  • Nick Pelling ‘ Roger Bacon “gunpowder cipher”…?
  • Robert Steele, “Luru Vopo Vir Can Utriet.” Nature 121 (11 Feb. 1928), pp.208-9. The article’s abstract (which is all I’ve seen) mentions another item (NATURE, Sept. 4, 1926, p. 352).
  • John F. Dooley, History of Cryptography and Cryptanalysis: Codes, Ciphers, and Their Algorithms. (2018).
  • Lynn Thorndike, ‘Bacon and Gunpowder‘, Science, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 1092 (Dec. 3, 1915), pp. 799-800. (p.799).
  • Jeremiah Hackett, (ed.)  Roger Bacon and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays 1996 (Brill)
  • Sarton, George (1948), Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. II: From Rabbi Ben Ezra to Roger Bacon, (1931)  discusses the merits of Asian, Arab, and Latin invention (p.1037).
  • Edward Lutz, ‘Roger Bacon’s Contribution to Knowledge’, Franciscan Studies, No. 17, June, 1936), pp. ii-v, vii-xi, 1-82.
  • Herbert Hochberg, ‘The Empirical Philosophy of Roger and Francis Bacon’. Philosophy of Science, Vol. 20, No. 4 (Oct., 1953), pp. 313-326.
  • Joseph Needham (ed.), Science and Civilization in China, Vol. 5 Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, ‘Military Technology: the Gunpowder Epic’ (1986).
  • Hansjacob, Der Schwarze Berthold, Der Erfinder des Schiespulvers u. der Feuerwaffen (Freiburg, 1891). The legend of Black Berthold. contrast with Needham, (op.cit., p.51.)
  • Lynn Thorndike, ‘The True Roger Bacon’ published in two parts in  The American Historical Review. Part 1 in Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan., 1916), pp. 237-257; Part 2 in Vol. 21, No. 3 (Apr., 1916), pp. 468-480.
  • the current version of the wiki biography for Roger Bacon is good.(Dec. 2018) from Needham, op.cit., (p.51),

Header picture: Mongols using grenades/bombs in 13thC Japan. (no source given)

Illustrations: Portrait of Lynn Thorndike (source unknown); Friar Bacon and hypothetical telescope. From Lutz (1936); detail from the ‘Mara Buddha’ – foreign ‘demons’ attack Dunhuang’s Buddhist enclaves. (10thC AD); Portrait of Joseph Needham (Needham Research Institute); clip from from Needham, cited above (p.51);

 

 

Post 6. Military cryptanalysts – Prelude (December 28th., 2018)

Sources
  •  [pdf] The U.S.Bureau Of Investigation File on Wilfrid Voynich.  posted, and his Introduction, by Colin MacKinnon,
  • [pdf] Mary d’Imperio, The Voynich Manuscript: an elegant Enigma, NSA.
  • [pdf] The original file, in a cleaned-up copy, later made available.
  • [pdf] Mary d’Imperio, ‘An Application of PTAH to the Voynich Manuscript (U)‘. Originally classified ‘Top Secret’ the paper was also released as a pdf in 2009 – minus a number of excised passages.
  • [pdf] ‘Friedman Legacy’, Sources in Cryptologic History, Number 3. National Security Agency.  3rd. printing, 2006.  (The pdf may be slow to load).
  • David Kahn, The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet (1996).  Manly-Friedman correspondance for 1931 – entries numbered 361 and 362 in Khan’s ‘Notes to Text’ .
  • John Matthews Manly, ‘Roger Bacon and the Voynich MS’, Speculum Vol. 6, No. 3 (Jul., 1931), pp. 345-391.
  • John Dooley and Elizabeth Anne King, ‘John Matthews Manly: The Collier’s Articles’, Cryptologia, Vol. 38 No.1 (January 2014) pp. 77-88. doi: 10.1080/01611194.2013.797049
  • Landon R. Y. Storrs, ‘McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare’, American History [Journal],  (Jul 2015).  DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780199329175.013.6
  • Sidney Hook,  ‘McCarthy and American Universities’, Minerva, Vol. 25, No. 3 (September 1987), pp. 331-348.
  • critique of above – [pdf] Mark deWolfe Howe, (review) ‘Heresy, yes – Conspiracy, no by Sidney Hook.. (1953)’, Yale Law Journal, Volume 63 (1953), Issue 1 pp.132-137.
  • Melvin Rader, False Witness (re-publication with afterword by Leonard Shroeter), 1997.
  • avid R. Holmes, McCarthyism and Academic Freedom : Stalking the Academic Communist: Intellectual Freedom and the Firing of Alex Novikoff, (University Press of New England: 1989 and 1990)
  • Holmes’ book received a long review by Russell Jacob in the New York Times, (April 09, 1989).

Header picture: Senator Joseph McCarthy maps subversives in 1950 America. (courtesy Colorado State University Archives).

Illustrations: Advertisement for Wilfrid Voynich’s shop (American Art News, May 12th., 1927); William Friedman in 1917, courtesy
George C. Marshall Foundation; Portrait of John Matthews Manly (courtesy Chicago Library); portrait of Julius Rosenberg (courtesy Library of Congress); Section from Bibliography –  John F. Dooley, Codes, Ciphers and Spies… (2016) showing entries ‘Manly…’ ;

 

 

Post 7. …….: Interrogatories of 1954 (Jan. 3rd., 2019)

&

Post 8. …….. The ‘Art Group Four‘ (Jan.8th., 2019)

Sources
[pdf] Jim Reeds, ‘William F. Friedman’s Transcription of the Voynich Manuscript’ (7th. September 1994).

Jim Reeds’  Voynich mailing list (also described as the ‘first mailing list’)

  1. The earlier archives (1991- 2001) are available zip files, ordered by year, at http://voynich.net/reeds/vmail.html
  2. Archives for 2000-2005  are still up as webpages, ordered by year, month and thread (or date). Index at  http://www.voynich.net/Arch/
  • Panofsky, Erwin. “Answers to Questions for Prof. E. Panofsky.” Letter to William F. Friedman, March 19, 1954. Correspondence between Friedman, Panofsky, and J. v. Neumann. Letters from Richard Salomon to Erwin Panofsky and Gertrud Bing. WFF 1614.  (i.e.: George Marshall Foundation (library?) William F. Friedman Collection,  file no. 1614.)
  • [pdf] Mary Rose Sheldon, ‘The Friedman Collection: An Analytical Guide’ (2014)
  • Istvan Hargittai, The Martians of Science: Five Physicists who changed the Twentieth Century (2006)
  • Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze, Mathematicians Fleeing from Nazi Germany: Individual Fates and Global Impact (2009).
  • On Birkhoff see  also Steve Nadis and Shing-Tung Ya,  A History in Sum: 150 Years of Mathematics at Harvard (1825-1975) (2013).
  • reviewed in  ‘Math and Anti-semitism went hand in hand at Harvard for decades‘ – Forward magazine article 190547. (January 11, 2014)
  • Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze, Mathematicians Fleeing from Nazi Germany: Individual Fates and Global Impact. (2009)
  • [pdf] Brigadier John Tiltman: a Giant among Cryptanalysts (NSA publication, 2007);
  • [pdf] Colin MacKinnon, ‘William Friedman’s Bletchley Park Diary: A New Source for the History of Anglo-American Intelligence Cooperation’, Intelligence and National Security, (December 2005) note 9, pp.4-5.
  • Erwin Panofsky, Jaś Elsner and Katharina Lorenz,  ‘On the Problem of Describing and Interpreting Works of the Visual Arts’ in  Critical Inquiry , Vol. 38, No. 3 (Spring 2012), pp. 467-482. [A translation into English, by Elsner and Lorenz, of a 1931 paper by Panofsky].
  •  lecture by Panofsky: “The Value of Error in the History of Art” (youtube)
  • Amos Morris-Reich, Race and Photography: Racial Photography as Scientific Evidence, 1876-1980.  On page p.239 (note 165) offers an interesting comment on how Carl Neumann and Panofsky each regarded  Dürer’s view of the Jews – while both men were in Germany and  Hitler was coming to power.
  • [pdf] Daniel Keenan, Kultur and acculturation: Erwin Panofsky in the United States of America, (PhD thesis), Glasgow University, 2014.
  • NSA/CSS, ‘William F.Friedman Collection of Official Papers
  • [pdf] ‘History of the Friedman Collection at the George C. Marshall Research Library’ Memorandum from Eugene F. Yeates to the Deputy Director [NSA] October 4th., 1982.
  • podcast interview and transcription:  Voices of the Manhattan Project – Peter Lax.
  • a podcast survey of Neumann’s life and works. (if you can cope with the ‘Valley Girl’ accent and intermittent ads. Comes with a fair bibliography).
  • Michael S. Goodman, ‘The grandfather of the hydrogen bomb?: Anglo-American intelligence and Klaus Fuchs’, Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences , Vol. 34, No. 1 (2003), pp. 1-22.

Panofsky’s correspondence is in various archives and personal collections, including Archives of American Art which hold letters written between 1920 and 1968.  see also archives from the Beinecke Library and the George C. Marshall Foundation.

Header illustration:  public domain image of Princeton, IAS, Huld hall.

Portraits of Friedman, Tiltman, Panofsky and von Neumann. All except Panofsky from files at the George C. Marshall Foundation; image of Panofsky from the Princeton Review.

Los Alamos identification badges for John von Neumann and Karl Fuchs courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory. via Alex Wellerstein’s blog.

 

 

 

Post 9. ……..  Friedman and his questions (

Sources

from (details – Examples…

  • IN MEMORIAM, The Phi Beta Kappa Key, Vol. 6, No. 8 (May 1927), pp. 526-537. Entry for Newbold is p.535.

from Details (from Reeds’ Voynich Bibliography)

  • 1953   E. Westacott, Roger Bacon in Life and Legend. New York: [Publisher?],1953. [A balanced writer whose errors are flaws in his sources rather than his apprehension of them. The text is online through the internet archive. – D.]
  • ? W.F. and E.S. Friedman, ‘Acrostics, Anagrams, and Chaucer’, Philological Quarterly 38 (1959), pp.1-20.
  • 1959   Jose Ruysschaert, Codices Vaticani Latini 11414 – 11709. Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, (1959). [Describes the MSs acquired by the Vatican from the Collegium Romanum, and mentions that W. Voynich bought a number of them which have been transferred to various American libraries, including the VMS.].
  • and see (re Zandbrgen’s recent references to the above). Richard Santacoloma, ‘Birth of a New Mythology‘ (Jan. 3rd., 2019).
  • 1963 Jan. Alfred Werner, ‘The Most Mysterious Manuscript”, Horizon, 5 (January,1963), pp.4-9.

from Details – ‘Lost opportunity: Richard Salomon on the script…’

  • Richard Georg Salomon, 
  • Jim Reeds’ discovery of ‘gallows-like’ glyphs in Capelli’s Dictionary [Plate IV] and transcription of the caption –  “1172, Giugno 13 — Savino abbate del monastero di S. Savino in Piacenza investe il mugnaio Gerardo Albarola per se e suoi eredi maschi in perpetuo, di un mulio di ragione del detto moasstero — Scritura carolina. — Pergamena origen., conservata nell’Archivio di Stato di Parma, monastero di S. Savino.”  (Reeds’ mailing list, Mon Jun 9th 1997),Jorge Stolfi’s translation of that caption.  “The date is on the “letter” itself, 13 june 1172. It is actually a notarial document recording the concession by the abbey of S. Savino in Piacenza of a mill of theirs to miller Gerardo Albarola and his heirs in perpetuity etc. etc. As I remember, it is signed by the abbot, several monks as witnesses, the miller (not sure), and the public  scribe / notary who prepared it .”(Reeds’ mailing list, (Fri, 6 Oct 2000),
  • Voynich ‘ground-hog day’ phenomenon  – phrase coined by N. Pelling, ‘David Kahn at the Athanaeum‘, 4th. June, 2013.
  • D.N. O’Donovan, ‘Who wrote the ‘gallows’, voynichimagery, Oct. 7th., 2015. (presently not public access).
  • Capelli, Lexicon abbreviaturarum: Dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiane, 6th ed. (Milan: Ulrico Hoepli, 1979).
  • [pdf] Heimann and Kay (trans.),  Capelli’s ‘Dictionary… ‘ (1982). This pdf has no plates.
  • [read online or pdf] the internet archive has an edition in German to the front, and Heimann and Kay’s translation to the back.  Includes between them Capelli’s Plates.

clip.. d’Imperio, Section 4.2 para.4

main text resumed..

  • Friedman’s “Questions for Professor Panofsky” – taken from Jim Reeds’ original paraphrase  (Reeds’mailing list, Friday April 15th., 1994).

from Details: ‘What’s Wrong With That?”

  • Erwin Panofsky, [Introduction] Studies in Iconology: Humanistic themes in the art of the Renaissance.
  • [pdf] John Tiltman, ‘The Voynich manuscript: “the most mysterious manuscript in the world”‘(1968). Paper released by the NSA under the Freedom of Information Act,  23rd April 2002.

Header Illustration: detail of plate on p.11 of the Supplemental Volume of De Re Diplomatica. Issued in 1707. following Mabillon’s De re diplomatica libri VI, published Paris, Louis Billaine, (1681). Note – the example is chosen at random; no argument should be inferred.

Cartoon, ‘Shoelace Conference’ – courtesy, the artist.

in (details… ‘Examples’) portrait photo of Ethel Voynich (1864-1960) courtesy Kotbeber.

in (details.. ‘Lost opportunity’) portrait photo of Michael Tangl courtesy of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences.

ibid. portrait photo of Richard Georg Salomon (1884-1966). Source unspecified.

 

 

Post 10. ………….  Panofsky’s responses of 1954.

Sources
  • G. Stuart Smith, A Life in Code: Pioneer Cryptanalyst Elizebeth Smith Friedman (2017). see e.g. p.220.
  • Hugh O’Neill, ‘Botanical Observations on the Voynich MS.’, Speculum, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Jan., 1944).
  • Charles B. Heiser, Jr., ‘The Sunflower among the North American Indians’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 95, No. 4 (Aug. 17, 1951), pp. 432-448.
  • Charles B. Heiser, Jnr.,  ‘Origin and Development of the Cultivated Sunflower’, The American Biology Teacher, Vol. 17, No. 5 (May, 1955), pp. 161-167.
  • Mowry, D. P., “Cryptologic Almanac 50th Anniversary Series – Francis A. Raven.” NSA/Center for Cryptologic History, released Jun 12, 2009, FOIA Case# 52567.
  • Alberto Perez (Vanderbilt University), ‘Secrets Abroad: A History of the Japanese Purple Machine.’
  • The Story of Magic: Memoirs of an American Cryptologic Pioneer, by Frank B. Rowlett (1998)
  • a Friedman Bibliography from Muskingum University website: ‘The Literature of Intelligence: A Bibliography of Materials,with Essays, Reviews, and Comments by J. Ransom Clark.
  • Jim Tester, History of Western Astrology, p.178

Panofsky recommended that Friedman read…

  • [“Sir”]Charles Singer, From Magic to Science, London 1928, and various publications by the same author;
  • Richard Salomon, Opicinus de Canistris, London, 1936;
  • F. Boll and G. von Bezold, Sternglaube und Sterndeutung, Second Edition (F. Gundel, Ed.), Berlin and Leipzig, 1926.
  • Carl Sudoff (ed.),  Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin and Studien zur Geschichte der Medizin;
  • E.O. von Lippmann, Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemie , Berlin, 1919 ff.,
  • “…as well as a fairly recent book by the famous psychologist C.O. Jung” (of whom, it would seem, Friedman had not heard, either.
  • Panofsky wrote: “Further endorsement of Mr. Manly’s adverse criticism [of Newbold’s decipherment] is found in a brief review of his article by the above-mentioned Professor Salomon which appeared in: Bibliothek Warburg, Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliographie zum Nachleben der Antike, I, Leipzig and Berlin, 1934, page 96, No. 386.

re Palaeography he recommended,

  • Adriano Cappelli, Dizionario delle Abbreviature Latine ed Italiane; commenting “my edition is the second, published 1912, but there may be more recent ones”.
  • “The book on forgery in art is by Hans Tietze and entitled Genuine and False; Copies, Imitations, Forgeries, New York, 1948″
  • “As far as the book by Mabillon is concerned, I am afraid that I did not express myself with sufficient clarity. He did not write a book on “The History of Diplomatics” but his famous De re Diplomatica of 1681 laid the foundations of palaeography starting out with the investigation of documents which were supposed to be genuine and which he proved to be forgeries by studying the development of script.”

Other sources:

  • Edward Grant, chapter ‘Celestial Motion and its Causes’ in Grant, E., Planets, Stars, and Orbs: The Medieval Cosmos, 1200-1687. (1996)
  • Alan B. Scott, Origen and the Life of the Stars (OUP 1991)
  • E. Ashworth Underwood (ed.), Science, Medicine, and History: Essays on. the Evolution of Scientific Thought and Medical Practice. Written in honour of Charles Singer.  Volumes I and Il. (1953).
  • Geoffrey Keynes’ review for the British Medical Journal neatly describes Singer’s character and publications.  The British Medical Journal, Vol. 1, No. 4873 (May 29, 1954), p. 1247.
  • Charles Singer,  The Evolution of Anatomy: A Short History of Anatomical and Physiological Discovery to Harvey: Being the Substance of the Fitzpatrick Lectures Delivered at The Royal College of Physicians of London in the years 1923 and 1924.
  • _______________, Studies in the history and method of science (1917).
  • Richard Georg Salomon, Studien zur normannisch-italischen Diplomatik. (thesis Hamburg, 1907).

‘Hieroglyphs’ in the sense used in Europe to as late as the seventeenth century, and the Hieroglyphica of Horapollo

  • See  ‘Hieroglyphs‘ in The Library of Renaissance Symbolism (website).
  • Hieroglyphica Horapollinis (1595). text in facing pages, Latin and Greek. (other copies and editions at the intenet archive).
  • George Boas (English trans. and introduction), The Hieroglyphics of Horapollo (1950). Re-issued  in 1993 with a new forward by Anthony T. Grafton. Panofsky’s deep interest in Dürer would have seen him read Boas’ work before 1954. Boas details evidence in Dürer’s work of the latter’s  interest in the Hieroglyphica.
  • English trans. also at ‘Sacred Texts’ (website).

re Panofsky’s identification of the month-names as ‘regional French’..

  • 1997 Dennis Stallings published a list of bibliographic and other items relating to Occitan in the first mailing list (10 Feb 1997) including the important note (later and independently stated by Artur Sixto  (comment to ciphermysteries, February 17, 2011) ) that Occitan and Catalan – or Judeo-Catalan – are closely similar.
  • 2004 Shaun Palmer looked at the orthography in detail in 2004.
  • 2009, Pelling credited Stolfi.   In other posts, Pelling thought it most like the dialect of Toulouse – though he may have changed his views since then.  Pelling first, and others including Don Hoffman later, noted a closely similar orthography on astrolabe inscriptions dating to c.1400.  I’ll return to this matter when we come to the astronomical themes.
  • 2011 Artur Sixto’s comment was made (February 17, 2011) at ciphermysteries.com, saying he thought the forms closer to Judeo-Catalan, and commenting on use of that dialect among emigrees into north-western France. Because so many comments were made to the same post by Pelling I quote here the whole of Sixto’s comment:

To me the months [names] seem to correspond slightly better to Catalan than Occitan. June for instance, spelled with “ou” corresponds to Catalan pronunciation, in French writing. “ny” would be Catalan relative to Occitan “nh” or French/Italian “gn”. So the person might have ties with the North of Catalonia (and could have a French influence) …. Interestingly, many Jews in Catalonia spoke Catalanic, a Catalan dialect close to Shuadit, i.e. Judaeo-Provençal (i.e. Judaeo-Occitan).

  • 2015 Commenting at Stephen Bax’s blog (May 18, 2015 – 11:14 pm) ‘Don of Tallahassee’ [Don Hoffman] noted similar forms for month-names used in Picardy, his examples taken from calendars in fifteenth-century Books of Hours.
  • Erwin Panofsky, Artist, Scientist, Genius: Notes on the “Renaissance-Dämmerung”, Lecture Given May 10, 1952 at the Fogg Museum Before the New England Conference on Renaissance-Studies. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1953). also included in Wallace K. Ferguson (et.al.), Six Essays on the Renaissance (1962).
  • [pdf] Claudia Swan, ‘Illustrated Natural History’ in Susan Dackerman (ed.), Prints and the Pursuit of Knowledge , exhibition catalogue, Harvard Art Museums (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011), pp.186-191.

On flowers, their perception, depiction and attitudes to cultivation from ancient to modern times, with emphasis on Europe’s medieval and Renaissance periods, see also

  • Jack Goody, The Culture of Flowers (CUP Archive, 1993).
  • reviewed by Chandra Mukerji in Theory and Society, Vol. 25, No. 4 (Aug., 1996), pp. 590-594
  • Erwin Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting: its origins and character (1953) Vol. 1 pp. 333 and note 6 to p.416.

Panofsky quotes Salomon’s interpretation of marginalia … “de Mussteil”

  • Heidelberg University Library, UBH Cod.Pal.germ. 164 Heidelberger Sachsenspiegel (dated to 1305)
  • Salomon had consulted several secondary sources  (as cited in a letter of 1936 to Panofsky or to Mrs.Voynich per Anne Nill), quoting in full an entry from e.g.: Der Sachsenspiegel (Landrecht) nach der ältesten Leipziger Handschrift herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. Julius Weiske. Neubearbeitet von weil. Professor Dr. Hildebrand. 8th.ed. Leipzig, O.R. Reisland, 1905 (Glossary p.28.)  The letter is lacking its first page and is in ‘Salomon-Panofsky correspondence’ file in the archives of Yale, Beinecke Rare Books and Manuscripts Library.

See also

  • Erwin Panofsky, Korrespondenz 1910 bis 1968. Eine kommentierte Auswahl in fünf Bänden, hrsg. von Dieter Wuttke (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag):  Bd. I,Korrespondenz 1910 bis 1936 (2001); Bd. II,Korrespondenz 1936–1949 (2003).  English reviews e.g. International Journal of the Classical Tradition, Vol.11 (2004) Dec (Issue 2), pp. 280-292.

 

 

(Posts 11-15)  Specialist Opinions  -Erwin Panofsky

Sources

Sources

Richard Santacoloma,  ‘Anne Nill speaks‘, proto57, (January 16, 2013)

  • Joseph Dan et.al., The Early Kabbalah, Classics in Western Spirituality series (1986). pp.133-150.
  •  ‘Butibalausi‘, Poemas del Rio Wang, Dec. 31st., 2008
  •  ‘Old Occitan‘ – brief wiki article recommended for its bibliography.
  • Frede Jensen, The syntax of medieval Occitan. (2015)
  • Notes on ‘Occitan’ included in  ‘Military cryptanalysts: Panofsky’s responses of 1954‘ (January 19th., 2019) in Comments to Q 7.
  • Pierre Bec, ‘Occitan’ in Rebecca Posner and John N. Green, Language and Philology in Romance (1982).  pp.115-130. Technical, philological. Good maps.
  • a resource for comparing medieval French orthographies: Dictionnaire du Moyen Français (1330-1500)
  • for Anglo-Norman (which gives  e.g. septembre; setembre, setumbre).
  • The Spanish of Andalusia‘ – detailed philological study online from PSU.
  • Christopher Columbus’ Catalan-inflected Language‘, The Chronicle of Higher Education blog, (October 8, 2017).
  • Carrie E. Beneš (ed.),  A Companion to Medieval Genoa, (Vol. 15 in the series: Brill’s Companions to European History).
  • Schiaffini, A. (1929). Il mercante genovese nel medio evo e il suo linguaggio. Genoa, Italy: SIAG
  •  Franz Rainer, ‘The Language of the Economy and Business in the Romance Languages‘, Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics.
  • Variant forms within Catalan. See e.g. ‘Mallorcan, Menorcan, Ibizan and Formenteran‘, Rio Wang (Oct. 7th., 2010)
  • Other mentions of Catalan and Occitan, of course, consult Jim Reeds’ mailing list.
  • Mary Carruthers, The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture (second, revised and updated second edition 2008) pp. 329-338.
  •  John Matthews Manly: The Collier’s Articles; and Essays on John Matthews Manly and Edith Rickert.
  • Ramon Lull’s ‘Le libre del ordre de cavayleria’ together with Adam Loutfut’s Scottish Transcript (Brit.Lib. MS Harley 6149), ed. by Alfred T. P. Byles (London: Early English Text Society, 1926), pp. xxvi-xxx [concerns the texSt at ff. 83-109 in Harley 6149.
  • Idan Pérez, “Las definiciones de Ramón Llull en un manuscrito judeocatalán de finales del siglo XV (Vat.Ebr.375)”. Iberia Judaica Núm. X. (2018), pp. 155-170.[The Definitions of Ramon Llull in a JudeoCatalan Manuscript from the end of the XV century (Vat.Ebr.375) etc.
  • David King, Cipher of the Monks: a forgotten notation system. (2001).
  • Raphael Levy, ‘The Background and the Significance of Judeo-French’, Modern Philology, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Aug., 1947), pp. 1-7.
  • medieval Picard orthography and pronunciation see catalogue commentary to Brit.Lib. MSs Additional 10292, 10293 and 10294.
  • Paul Wexler, Three Heirs to a Judeo-Latin Legacy: Judeo-Ibero-Romance, Yiddish and Rotwelsch (1988). 
  • Yedida K. Stillman, George K. Zucker (eds.), New Horizons in Sephardic Studies (SUNY Press, 2012).
  • William S. Heckscher, ‘Erwin Panofsky: A Curriculum Vitae’, Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University, Vol. 28, No. 1, Erwin Panofsky: In Memoriam (1969), pp. 4-21. (p.13).
  • [Biography] Dr. Walter S. Cook, in whose honour annual lectures are presented at the NYU Institute of Fine Arts.
  • Ingrid Rowland, ‘A Banker, a Scholar, and the Invention of Art History: The story of the Warburg brothers’, The New Republic Magazine (July 6th., 2014).
  • (review) Irving Lavin (ed.), Meaning in the Visual Arts: Views from the Outside. A Centennial Commemoration of Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968) (1995) reviewed by Robert W.Gaston in  International Journal of the Classical Tradition, Vol. 4, No. 4 (Spring, 1998), pp. 613-623.
  • .Lynn White, Jr., ‘Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages’, Speculum, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1940), pp. 141-159
  • ________________, ‘Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology’, The American Historical Review, Vol. 65, No. 3 (Apr., 1960), pp. 515-526.
  • ________________, ‘Indic Elements in the Iconography of Petrarch’s Trionfo della Morte’, Speculum, Vol. 49, No. 2 (Apr., 1974), pp. 201-221.
  • Karl A. F. Fischer, Paul Kunitzsch, Tzvi Langermann, ‘The Hebrew Astronomical Codex MS Sassoon 823’, The Jewish Quarterly Review, LXXVIII, Nos. 3-4 (January-April, 1988) 253-292.
  • [pdf] Jim Reeds, ‘Solved: The Ciphers in Book iii of Trithemius’s Steganographia’, (DRAFT: 26 March 1998).
  •  Sefaria site.  Parallel Hebrew/English text of Sefer Yetzirah.
  • British Library MS Or.11791 Parchment codex.  Commentaries on the Sefer Yetzirah written from the 14th-15thC.
    The Library recommends reading the following article by Jonnie Schnytzer, and so do I.

  • George Robinson, ‘Kabbalah in Spain‘, (undated online article). Sub-title reads, “From the 13th through the 15th century, the Iberian Peninsula was the home of most major kabbalists.”
  • Rabbi Yom Tov Glaser –  Kabbalah for modern believers –  youtube video.
  • Ephraim Rubin,  introduction to the Zohar.  published as a blogpost at Kinkatso & Co.
  • Joseph Dan, ‘Gershom Scholem’s Reconstruction of Early Kabbalah’, Modern Judaism, Vol. 5, No. 1, Gershom Scholem Memorial Issue (Feb., 1985), pp.39-66.
  • Hartley Lachter, ‘Spreading Secrets: Kabbalah and Esotericism in Isaac ibn Sahula’s Meshal ha-kadmoni’, The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. 100, No. 1 (Winter 2010), pp. 111-138.
  • Moshe Idel, ‘Ramon Lull and Ecstatic Kabbalah: A Preliminary Observation’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 51 (1988), pp. 170-174.
  • Moshe Idel, ‘Maimonides’ “Guide of the Perplexed” and the Kabbalah’,  Jewish History, Vol. 18, No. 2/3, Commemorating the Eight Hundredth Anniversary of Maimonides’ Death (2004), pp. 197-226
  • Shaul Magid, ‘From Theosophy to Midrash: Lurianic Exegesis and the Garden of Eden’, AJS Review, Vol. 22, No. 1 (1997), pp. 37-75.
  •  Daniel Jütte, ‘Trading in Secrets: Jews and the Early Modern Quest for Clandestine Knowledge’,  Isis , Vol. 103, No. 4 (December 2012), pp. 668-686. (This is the paper which introduced me to the figure of Abramo Colorno, an Italian-Jewish alchemist,engineer, and entrepreneur who lived at Rudolf’s court and wrote on cryptography (1544–1599). On which now see N.Pelling, ‘Abraham Colorni’s Cryptography…’ ciphermysteries, (Feb.9th., 2019).
  • The Zohar – first edition published in Mantua 1558-60 is in the Library of Congress, Hebraic Section.  (Sefer ha-Zohar, 3 volumes, Mantua, 1558-60 )

#Ellie Velinska, ‘The Voynich manuscript anatomy’ (September 11th., 2013).

 

 

Post 16. ……………..  Specialist Opinions – Richard Salomon (Feb. 18th., 2019)

 

 

Post 17. …..  Expert opinion: ‘Not one of mine’ (February 25, 2019). summary, citing Panofsky, Fr.Petersen, Salomon, Barrett, McLean, Sprague, Singer, Thorndike.

 

 

Post 18. …. (editorial)  Fear of the unknown – and raft ‘Elegant’ (March 16, 2019)

Abstract: “This post considers the effect on the manuscript’s study of excessive confidence when combined with social bias…”

 

 

Post 19.  …. Fear of the Unknown and raft ‘Elegant’. Pt 2 – the white wall.

Sources
    • Jules Janick, Arthur O. Tucker, Unravelling the Voynich Codex p.346 (excerpt quoted)
    • Iris Origo, ‘The Domestic Enemy: The Eastern Slaves in Tuscany in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries’,  Speculum, Vol.30 (1955) pp. 321-66
    • Robert Davidsohn, Origini della Storia di Firenze (8 vols  1956-1968) pp.1203.
    • M.N. Adler, The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela Critical Text, Translation And Commentary (OUP, 1907) p.3
    • For the later history of Montpellier’s Jews see ‘Montpellier‘ in the Jewish Encyclopaedia online.
    • Hidemichi Tanaka, ‘The Mongolian script in Giotto’s paintings at the Scrovegni Chapel at Padova’,  Akten des XXV. Internationalen Kongresses fur KunstgeschichtePt.6 (1986) pp.167-74. or:
      • ___________________, “Giotto and the Influences of the Mongols and the Chinese on His Art: A New Analysis of the Legend of St. Francis and the Fresco Paintings in the Scrovegni Chapel”, in: Bijutsu  shigaku [Art History] (Sendai), VI (1984),
    • D.N. O’Donovan, ‘Chronological strata ~ Avignon 1300s’, voynichimagery, (February 6th, 2015).
      • __________________, ‘On the doorstep.. and things Manichaean’, (October 31st, 2016).
    • Roxanne Pranzniac, ‘Siena on the Silk Roads: Ambrogio Lorenzetti and the Mongol Global Century, 1250-1350’, Journal of World History, Vol. 21, No. 2 (June 2010), pp. 177-217.
    • Hidemichi Tanaka, Oriental scripts in the paintings of Giotto’s period” – Extrait de la Gazette des Beaux-Arts, Mai-Juin 1989 pp. 214-224 .
    • Vera-Simone Schulz, ‘From Letter to Line: Artistic Experiments with Pseudo-Script in Late Medieval Italian Painting, Preliminary Remarks’ in Marzia Faietti and Gerhard Wolf (eds.), The Power of Line (2015) pp.144-161.
    • Mongol elements in Western medieval art   (wiki article)

 

EXPERT OPINION vs MATERIALS SCIENCE

Post 20.______________  Pt.1 ( Voynich myth)

Sources

the example of ‘Bacon’s telescope’

  • Wilfrid M. Voynich, ‘A Preliminary Sketch of the History of the Roger Bacon Cipher Manuscript’, Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, Vol. 43 (1921).  p.415.
  • John Sherren Brewer, Rogeri Bacon Opera quædamhactenus inedita. London : Longman, Green, and Roberts, 1859.  Vol. I. containing I.–Opus tertium. II.–Opus minus. III.–Compendium philosophiæ. (Bacon’s biography is included in the Preface  pp. xi-lxxxiv).
  • John Henry Bridges, The ‘Opus majus’ of Roger Bacon, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1873. Vol.1, Introduction § 1. ‘Bacon’s Life’ pp. xxi-xxxvi.
  • John Henry Bridges, Obituary, from The Times (-of London), Tuesday, Jun 26, 1906; pg. 14; Issue 38056. Explains that Bridges’ work was not well received.
  • William Romaine Newbold, ‘The Roger Bacon Manuscript’Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, Series 3: Vol.43, (1921)  pp. 431- 474. Section occurs pp.456ff.
  • James Stokley, ‘Did Roger Bacon Have a Telescope?’, The Science News-Letter, Vol. 14, No. 386 (Sep. 1, 1928), pp. 125-126+133-134.
  • Edward Lutz, ‘Roger Bacon’s Contribution to Knowledge’, Franciscan Studies, No. 17 (June, 1936), pp. ii-v, vii-xi, 1-82.
  • Norman Sperling,  ‘Voynich: ‘Spiraling into Folly’ everythingintheuniverse(December 26, 2012).
  • Richard Santacoloma, ‘Birth of a New Mythology’proto57, (Jan. 3rd., 2019).

 

Post 21: _____________ Pt.2 The Beinecke Library (its Voynich website)

Sources
  • R. S. Brumbaugh, The Most Mysterious Manuscript: The Voynich “Roger Bacon” Cipher Manuscript (Carbondale, Illinois, 1978).
  • ______________, “Botany and the Voynich ‘Roger Bacon’ Manuscript Once More,” Speculum 49 (1974) pp. 546-48;
  • ______________,”The Solution of the Voynich ‘Roger Bacon’ Cipher,” [Yale Library] Gazette 49 (1975) pp. 347-55;
  • ______________,”The Voynich ‘Roger Bacon’ Cipher Manuscript: Deciphered Maps of Stars,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 39 (1976) pp. 139-50.

Reviews of Brumbaugh’s publications about the Voynich manuscript: